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Mesoamerican & Andean Art

Research aid for students in Prof. Patrick Hajovsky's classes at Southwestern University

Downloadable Citation Guide

Start here by downloading and/or printing this file.

When to Cite

  • When you directly quote someone else                                             
  • When you reference another person's ideas
  • When you outline someone else's argument or line of reasoning

When in doubt, cite it- and cite it properly, using this page as a guide!


Zotero is a free citation manager that allows you to save citation information while searching and browsing the Web. With a single click, Zotero saves citations and enables you to create customized bibliographies in standard citation styles, including MLA, Chicago and APA. This helpful tool can really help with time management and organization, so definitely look into it!

See the Quick Start page with its helpful Video Intro to get started.

Academic Integrity: the SU Honor Code

From the Southwestern University Student Handbook:

"Plagiarism is the submission of another's work as one's own without acknowledgment in the written work.

There are basically four ways in which research papers use or incorporate written materials, and each of these requires footnoting.

1. Direct quotations should be marked off with quotation marks, with a footnote to indicate the source.

It is not necessary to place in quotation marks every word in your paper that appears in a source you are using. If your paper concerns Napoleon, for example, you need not place "Napoleon" in quotation marks merely because your sources use the name. Similarly, there are phrases of some length such as "on the other hand" or "it is evident that" which are common property and act in effect as single words.

2. Paraphrase. Where your own language follows closely the language of a written source, or where your line of argument follows a source, you need not use quotation marks, but you are obliged to indicate the source in a footnote.

3. General indebtedness. Where the ideas in your paper closely resemble and were suggested by the ideas in a source, a footnote should be used to indicate this.

4. Background information. In any area of inquiry there are matters of fact commonly known to everyone with a serious interest. Such information need not be footnoted one fact at a time. Instead, a general footnote toward the beginning of the paper, naming the sources where such general information was obtained, is sufficient."

There are many other types of academic dishonesty, including, but not limited to, cheating on tests, providing answers to test or homework questions to another student, stating false attendance at a required event, falsifying academic records, submitting work done in one class for credit in another class, and claiming work done by others as your own.

Acts of suspected academic dishonesty are referred to the Student Judiciary and the Dean of Students for review. The consequences for academic dishonesty are severe, ranging from loss of credit for an assignment to failure in a course. Repeated acts of academic dishonesty may result in both academic and non-academic penalties, including expulsion from the University. It is far better to avoid academic dishonesty and plagiarism in all your work.

Most Frequently Used Style Manuals


The four commonly used systems of documentation are:

  • MLA, used in English and the humanities
  • APA, used in psychology and the social sciences
  • Chicago, used primarily in history
  • CBE, used in the sciences.

Dr. Hajovsky's own field of art history tends to use Chicago, but for this course you are welcome to use whatever citation system will benefit you the most; e.g. if you know you will be a psych major, it makes sense to learn and start using APA.

See the SU Citing Sources LibGuide


 Plagiarism is the act of presenting another person's ideas as if they were your own. Using someone else's ideas without crediting that person is unethical. The word itself comes from Latin, meaning 'to kidnap.'

Common examples of plagiarism include: 

  • copying someone else's words without using quotation marks and crediting the source it came from;
  • paraphrasing or summarizing someone else's words without citing the source;
  • quoting someone inaccurately;
  • restating someone's original or specialized ideas without citing the source;
  • accidentally or intentionally misrepresenting someone else's words or ideas;
  • citing the wrong source; or
  • pretending someone else's work is your own.

Note: Text isn't the only thing that can be plagiarized. You also must credit the sources of images, graphics, charts, drawings, video, music, etc.