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East Asian Art

Research aid for students in Dr. Miller's courses at Southwestern University

Chicago/Turabian: The Basics

What is Chicago Style?

Chicago style is the style system published by the University of Chicago Press in the Chicago Manual of Style, now in its 17th edition. Chicago style is used in both the humanities and the social sciences, in fields such as history. Chicago style offers two different styles for humanities and the social sciences.  The style variations are as follows:

Notes-Bibliography System -- favored in literature, history, and the arts (use Notes-Bibliography System for Art History!)

Author-Date System -- favored in the social sciences and also the sciences

What is Turabian Style?

Turabian style is really just a variation of Chicago style. Turabian style is named after Kate L. Turabian, a professor who wrote a handbook on Chicago style specifically tailored to student researchers.  The differences between Turabian style and Chicago style are negligible.

If you have additional questions, don't hesitate to contact a librarian!

Chicago/Turabian Citations

In-Text Citations - Notes

In the Chicago Notes-Bibliography style format, you typically use footnotes or endnotes in your paper. The rules for footnotes and endnotes are complicated. Fortunately, there are a number of examples online and in the extremely comprehensive Chicago Manual of Style book. And a librarian is always happy to help!

In a nutshell, a footnote appears as a numbered citation at the bottom of the page (endnotes appear in a group at the end of a paper). The first time you reference a work or an author, you include a longer footnote with a full title, publication information, etc.

When you reference a work or an author for a subsequent time, you include the author's last name, the title of the work, and a page number.

If you make two references to a work in a row (for example, you include two different quotes from the same work), you use "Ibid.," instead of the author's name or title. "Ibid." basically means "this is the same work/author as above."


In Chicago style, you also create a Bibliography listing all of your sources alphabetically.  A bibliography contains a full citation for every source you use. Full citations include the author's name, the complete title, any information about editions and translations, and complete publication information.

Important reminder! The detailed version of a footnote citation (for the first time you reference a work) and the bibliographic citation in Chicago style are different. Make sure you don't just copy a citation from your bibliography into a footnote. 

Organizational Tools

These online tools can help you manage your articles, citations, and bibliographies.

Some are free, some are not. Choose one that best fits your needs.