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Using Sources: Evaluating and Citing Sources: Plagiarism

This guide shows students what to do now that they have found information. The main purposes of this guide is to explain how to determine if an item meets their needs and how to incorporate the information into their assignment.

Southwestern University Honor Code

From the Southwestern University Student Handbook: "Plagiarism is the submission of another’s work as one’s own without acknowledgment in written work."

Incorporate research directly into your paper, each requiring footnoting or in-text citation.

1. Direct Quotations should be marked off with quotation marks, with a footnote to indicate the source. It is not necessary to place in quotation marks every word in your paper that appears in a source you are using. If your paper concerns Napoleon, for example, you need not place “Napoleon” in quotation marks merely because your sources use the name. Similarly, there are phrases of some length such as “on the other hand” or “it is evident that” which are common property and act in effect as single words.

2. Paraphrase. Where your own language follows closely the language of a written source, or where your line of argument follows a source, you need not use quotation marks, but you are obliged to indicate the source in a footnote.

3. General Indebtedness. Where the ideas in your paper closely resemble and were suggested by ideas in a source, a footnote should be used to indicate this.

 

4. Background Information. In any area of inquiry there are matters of fact commonly known to everyone with a serious interest. Such information need not be footnoted one fact at a time. Instead, a general footnote toward the beginning of the paper, naming the sources where such information was obtained, is sufficient."

Acts of suspected academic dishonesty are referred to the Student Judiciary and the Dean of Students for review. The consequences for academic dishonesty are severe, ranging from loss of credit for an assignment to failure in a course. Repeated acts of academic dishonesty may result in both academic and non-academic penalties, including expulsion from the University.

Always be honest with yourself and your instructor.    

If you have any question about whether or not your work is derivative, that is, based on someone else's ideas, ask your instructor or a librarian for guidance. If you realize after you've submitted a paper that you left out some sources, contact your instructor to let them know what happened. You're here to learn, so don't be afraid to ask for advice!

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Honor Pledge

Each student entering Southwestern pledges to support the Honor System

 

More about copyright and Fair Use

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Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism

Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism

  1. Don't ever copy and paste directly from an online source into your main document. Instead,  Copy paste into a "Notes" document.

  2. Use special colors to indicate copied text, or put a "Q" in front of the text to indicate that the material is a quote.

  3. Try writing a paraphrase without looking at the original to let your own voice come through, but always compare your version to the original to make sure you've changed it enough.

  4. Even in your notes, introduce the original author before you mention the idea: "In 1915, according to Alexander Thomas, the American sense of equality and fair play led to a general reconsideration of the idea of votes for women."

Myths about copyright

"If it doesn't have the copyright notice © or the phrase 'All Rights Reserved', then that means it isn’t copyrighted."

False! Since April 1, 1989, any originally created work is copyrighted and protected whether it has a notice or not. Therefore, if you use someone else’s work and claim it as your own, even just by omitting their name, it is a copyright violation.

 

"If I can find it for free on the Internet, then it is doesn’t need to be cited."

Nope! TV shows, books in the library, websites, and many other sources you might find for free, just because you can find the source without purchasing it, does not mean it isn’t copyrighted.


- from 10 Big Myths about copyright explained by Brad Templeton

Education and Fair Use-- For Instructors

What Is an “Educational Use”?

The educational fair use guidelines apply to material used in educational institutions and for educational purposes. Examples of “educational institutions” include K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. Libraries, museums, hospitals, and other nonprofit institutions also are considered educational institutions under most educational fair use guidelines when they engage in nonprofit instructional, research, or scholarly activities for educational purposes.

“Educational purposes” are:

  • noncommercial instruction or curriculum-based teaching by educators to students at nonprofit educational institutions

  • planned noncommercial study or investigation directed toward making a contribution to a field of knowledge, or

  • presentation of research findings at noncommercial peer conferences, workshops, or seminars.

 

What Is an “Educational Use”?

The educational fair use guidelines apply to material used in educational institutions and for educational purposes. Examples of “educational institutions” include K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. Libraries, museums, hospitals, and other nonprofit institutions also are considered educational institutions under most educational fair use guidelines when they engage in nonprofit instructional, research, or scholarly activities for educational purposes.

“Educational purposes” are:

  • noncommercial instruction or curriculum-based teaching by educators to students at nonprofit educational institutions
  • planned noncommercial study or investigation directed toward making a contribution to a field of knowledge, or
  • presentation of research findings at noncommercial peer conferences, workshops, or seminars.
- See more at: http://fairuse.stanford.edu/overview/academic-and-educational-permissions/non-coursepack/#sthash.wFz1RpPJ.dpuf

Rules for Reproducing Text Materials for Use in Class

The guidelines permit a teacher to make one copy of any of the following: a chapter from a book; an article from a periodical or newspaper; a short story, short essay, or short poem; a chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper.

Teachers may photocopy articles to hand out in class, but the guidelines impose restrictions. Classroom copying cannot be used to replace texts or workbooks used in the classroom. Pupils cannot be charged more than the actual cost of photocopying. The number of copies cannot exceed more than one copy per pupil. And a notice of copyright must be affixed to each copy.

 

Examples of what can be copied and distributed in class include:

  • a complete poem if less than 250 words or an excerpt of not more than 250 words from a longer poem

  • a complete article, story, or essay if less than 2,500 words or an excerpt from any prose work of not more than 1,000 words or 10% of the work, whichever is less; or

  • one chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture per book or per periodical issue.

 

Not more than one short poem, article, story, essay, or two excerpts may be copied from the same author, nor more than three from the same collective work or periodical volume (for example, a magazine or newspaper) during one class term. As a general rule, a teacher has more freedom to copy from newspapers or other periodicals if the copying is related to current events.

 

The idea to make the copies must come from the teacher, not from school administrators or other higher authority. Only nine instances of such copying for one course during one school term are permitted. In addition, the idea to make copies and their actual classroom use must be so close together in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a permission request. For example, the instructor finds a newsweekly article on capital punishment two days before presenting a lecture on the subject.

 

Teachers may not photocopy workbooks, texts, standardized tests, or other materials that were created for educational use. The guidelines were not intended to allow teachers to usurp the profits of educational publishers. In other words, educational publishers do not consider it a fair use if the copying provides replacements or substitutes for the purchase of books, reprints, periodicals, tests, workbooks, anthologies, compilations, or collective works.

Rules for Reproducing Music

A music instructor can make copies of excerpts of sheet music or other printed works, provided that the excerpts do not constitute a “performable unit,” such as a whole song, section, movement, or aria. In no case can more than 10% of the whole work be copied and the number of copies may not exceed one copy per pupil. Printed copies that have been purchased may be edited or simplified provided that the fundamental character of the work is not distorted or the lyrics altered (or added to).

 

A student may make a single recording of a performance of copyrighted music for evaluation or rehearsal purposes, and the educational institution or individual teacher may keep a copy. In addition, a single copy of a sound recording owned by an educational institution or an individual teacher (such as a tape, disc, or cassette) of copyrighted music may be made for the purpose of constructing aural exercises or examinations, and the educational institution or individual teacher can keep a copy.

 

Instructors may not:

  • copy sheet music or recorded music for the purpose of creating anthologies or compilations used in class

  • copy from works intended to be “consumable” in the course of study or teaching such as workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and answer sheets, and like material

  • copy sheet music or recorded music for the purpose of performance, except for emergency copying to replace purchased copies which are not available for an imminent performance (provided purchased replacement copies are substituted in due course); or

  • copy any materials without including the copyright notice which appears on the printed copy.

 

If copyrighted sheet music is out of print (not available for sale), an educator can request permission to reproduce it from the music publisher. Information about contacting music publishers is provided in Chapter 5. A library that wants to reproduce out-of-print sheet music can use a system established by the Music Publishers’ Association by downloading and completing a form called the “Library Requisition for Out-of-Print Copyrighted Music” from the Association’s website at www.mpa.org/copyright_resource_center/forms.

Rules for Recording and Showing Television Programs

Nonprofit educational institutions can record television programs transmitted by network television and cable stations. The institution can keep the tape for 45 days, but can only use it for instructional purposes during the first ten of the 45 days. After the first ten days, the video recording can only be used for teacher evaluation purposes, to determine whether or not to include the broadcast program in the teaching curriculum. If the teacher wants to keep it within the curriculum, he or she must obtain permission from the copyright owner. The recording may be played once by each individual teacher in the course of related teaching activities in classrooms and similar places devoted to instruction (including formalized home instruction). The recorded program can be repeated once if necessary, although there are no standards for determining what is and is not necessary. After 45 days, the recording must be erased or destroyed.

A video recording of a broadcast can be made only at the request of and only used by individual teachers. A television show may not be regularly recorded in anticipation of requests—for example, a teacher cannot make a standing request to record each episode of a PBS series. Only enough copies may be reproduced from each recording to meet the needs of teachers, and the recordings may not be combined to create teaching compilations. All copies of a recording must include the copyright notice on the broadcast program as recorded and (as mentioned above) must be erased or destroyed after 45 days.

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